Birds' chirping can be divided into 3 types including singing, crying and voice imitating. Singing normally is a continuous multisyllable melody uttered by the birds under the control of sex hormone. Some sorts of singing are quite melodious and agreeable. During its breeding period, the varied and agreeable cries uttered by male birds are typical singings. Singing is an important way for birds to allocate and defend their territories, to pronounce it has occupied a place and to warn other birds not to enter the area. The songs uttered by birds in singing are more varied and complicated than their common cries, which mainly happen in the breeding period in spring and summer. Cries are not controlled by sex hormone and can be uttered by both male and female birds. Usually cries of birds are short and simple. But the cries of birds mean a lot. They are used to communicate with one another and to inform one another about dangerous information. The cries of birds can express calling, warning, surprising and threatening. Sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate crying and singing. Generally speaking, cries are not affected by the change of seasons and can be uttered by all birds. It is an important way for birds to communicate with one another. Voice imitating means a bird to imitate the crying or voice of other birds. The biological meaning of voice imitating is not clear until up to now.

There are 5 basic elements in all kinds of birds' cries.

Time: the time the cries last.
Tone: the high or low of the cries.
Loudness: the power and volume of the cries.
Tone quality: the sound quality of the cries, which is often described through voices similar to the birds' crying. So to speak, the crying of a bird is like whistling or the friction sound of metals.
Syllables: what kind of syllables does the crying consist of? How many syllables are included in a set of crying? If some sounds are all repeated, they will be addressed as a degree of sounds. The degree is often indicated with similar Chinese characters or pingyin. For example, the crying of Cuckoo has a degree of 2 sounds, it is recorded as bugu_, bugu_.

The singing of birds can be used to identify the specific kind of birds. But this is not always accurate. Some birds can sing a very long time to several minutes; others are rather short, only a few seconds. Besides, for some birds, there is a long interval period between their singing.

Let us listen to the singing of the birds.


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White-breasted waterhen
cnt201.rm cnt101.wav ྱѼ
European wigeon
cnt202.rm cnt102.wav
Black-throated laughing thrush
cnt203.rm cnt103.wav
Red-whiskered bulbul
cnt204.rm cnt104.wav

Barn swallow
cnt205.rm cnt105.wav ȵ
Magpie robin
cnt206.rm cnt106.wav
Little grebe
cnt207.rm cnt107.wav ԭ
Red junglefowl
cnt208.rm cnt108.wav
Chinese jungle mynah
cnt209.rm cnt109.wav 龱
Spotted-necked dove
cnt210.rm cnt110.wav

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